Eczema is a condition in which the skin becomes extremely dry and parched and is accompanied sometimes by oozing, scaling, and pain as well. It can occur in all the age groups. Eczema is caused due to endogenous and exogenous factors and sometimes both together. Eczematic patients normally have a family history of allergies, rhinitis or asthma. Eczemas are a chronic problem and require persistent treatment to cure it.
EXOGENOUS ECZEMA – This is caused due to external factors or agents like irritants.
Contact dermatitis – nickel, cement, detergents are the commonest agents to cause this exogenous eczema, it can occur on hands legs and sometimes even earlobes and neck. In occupational contact dermatitis on hands are more prone to be affected.
Topical steroids from mid potent to potent are used, also sometimes oral antibiotics and steroids have to be prescribed if the eczema is severe.
ENDOGENOUS ECZEMA An internal cause or an inherent property of the skin is responsible for the occurrence of eczema.
Seborrheic dermatitis– this is seen in individuals who commonly have hyperactive sebaceous gland. Scalp and face are involved as a rule. Eyebrows, eyelashes, glabella, nasolabial, paranasal, mustache and beard regions in male and external auditory meatus are preferentially affected. midchest, mid back, axillae, groins, the submammary fold may also be affected.
Mild to moderate scalp affection responds well to the regular use of shampoo containing antifungals,zinc pyrithione, or ketoconazole.
Topically steroid application is given on the face and oral antifungal treatment.
Along with allergic rhinitis, bronchial, and hay fever, atopic dermatitis constitutes atopy, a condition of altered reactivity to the common cold and mild environmental temperature or contact with woolen clothing.
Normally the children are affected by the age of 6months to 10years, in some cases, it can go up to adulthood. hands and legs are the common sites, but face and trunk can also be involved.
Topically mild steroids are used for long-term along with calcineurin inhibitors, for itching oral antihistamines are prescribed.