Acne is a common issue everybody goes through at some point in life. There are various medical and lifestyle reasons for the aggravation of this disease. It can seriously affect the confidence and the personality of the patient.
Acne has various stages and complications, ideally, it has to be nipped in the bud itself and so acne treatment has to start as early as possible to avoid any further complications like pigmentation and scars. Females are more prone to acne compared to males, but when it occurs in males it’s the severe form. Acne can occur on face, neck, and back and even on the scalp sometimes.
The common reasons for Acne
- Excessive oily skin
- Hormonal imbalance
- Lifestyle changes and diet
- Medications like Tuberculosis Rx
- Wrong cosmetics
Types of Acne
Neonatal acne – This kind of acne can occur in neonates and infants as small as 2 months, the appearance is on the nose and adjacent cheeks and in form of comedones and excess sebum. This can occur due to sebaceous gland sensitivity towards the mother hormones during pregnancy. It doesn’t require treatment, sometimes gel or creams are given to persistent cases.
Adolescence acne – This occurs at the onset of puberty as there is a surge of androgens during this phase and it increases the activity of sebaceous gland thus giving rise to whiteheads and blackheads, mostly occurring on the cheeks, nose, and forehead and it can get severe as well if not treated timely.
Adult acne – This acne occurs normally in pregnancy, middle age sometimes even after menopause, this is basically due to the hormonal imbalance like (polycystic ovarian syndrome) or due to excess androgens in the system and thus causes the sebaceous gland to behave abnormally. The areas normally affected are jawline, hairline and sometimes even neck.
Grades of Acne
Grade 1 – is whiteheads and blackheads, these are skin colored papules with closed roof and the blackheads are dilated pore which houses a black plug, few red colored papules may also present.
Grade 2 – multiple erythematous papules with few pus-filled lesions are present, sometimes pus ones may predominate.
Grade 3 – red colored nodules which are painful, are present with deep-seated pus filled ones can also be there.
Grade 4 – large skin colored and red indurated nodules and their sequelae characterize this stage. Such persistent nodules can progress slowly to form cystic swelling, that ultimately ruptures and cause scars. Sometimes such scarring can be hypertrophic scars.
Treatment of acne and scars
In my clinic, the treatment for acne is very specialized as in we take the help of medications and adjuvant therapies as well. Treatment completely depends on the severity and the form of acne. In our clinic we use therapies like –
- Extraction of whiteheads and blackheads
- Chemical peels – salicylic acid, black peel, glycolic acid and retinol peels
- Light therapies
- Lasers – q switch lasers /co2 lasers /erbium glass
Mild Acne – In this case, we would start topical medication like keratolytics and comedolytics and along with this would also perform the extraction and cleansing, so this way the patient experiences better results.
Moderate acne – In this case, we would start the patient on topical and oral treatments, oral treatment like oral antibiotics, zinc supplement and topically retinol, benzoyl peroxide gels. Along with this we also use our light therapies and chemical peels.
Severe Acne – The patient is treated with oral and topical medication along with extraction, chemical peels, lasers. The chemical peels help to control the excess oil secretion and also exfoliates the skin, thus leaving it smooth and clean. It also loosens the whiteheads and blackheads and prevents further aggravation of acne. New eruptions are also under control, prevents from scaring and pigmentation as well.
Lasers help in treating the leftover marks and pigmentation along with scars and it enhances the skin texture and tone. The pore size is reduced thus making the skin firmer.
Treatment of acne is a conglomeration of the science and technology together and we use it effectively to the core in our treatments thus giving the optimum of results and permanent ones.